Detailed discussion about what is supernova
The names of the objects that were meeting like sand in the sky at night were they. And don't make a mistake by thinking that someone is a NASA lamp. It was someday in 1054. Suddenly a very bright astrologer appeared in the sky. It lasted for about a month. People on earth see! What's this again?. Despite seeing numerous stars rising regularly in the night sky, the supernova is seen irregularly in this sky. The phenomenon of a star slowly growing and shining and then going out forever is called a supernova. In Latin, the word Nova means new. The super symptom has been added to the supernova. The star that is getting brighter is called a supernova. According to the information received, the word supernova was first used in 1926.
Astronomers have been familiar with supernovas since ancient times. Technology thousands of years ago were not the same as it was today. In ancient times astronomy was based only on observing the sky with the naked eye. But the supernova or the ultra-Navara has been caught by the investigative people. In the late 20th century, astronomers started using computer-controlled telescopes and charge-coupled devices, and CCD to search supernovas. They are very popular with amateur astronomers. As well as for professional astronomers. Supernova was first observed in 1054 AD. A Chinese astronomer saw a star in the Constellation Of Tours suddenly catch fire. It has been named SN-185. It is also the oldest supernova observed. SN-1006 is known as the brightest supernova. Chinese and Islamic astronomers detailed the supernova. That too was about a thousand years ago.
The last supernovas to occur in our galaxy were SN- 1572 and SN-1604. These supernovas were seen with two naked eyes. Johannes Kepler began observing a supernova called SN-1604 on 17 October 1604. It was the second supernova visible in a generation.
But what is a supernova?
Supernova is a type of stellar explosion process that destroys a star and eventually contains cold nebulae and black holes. Like all stars, our sun will have this fate one day. Nova calls a very rapid and powerful change in the brightness of a star. Supernova is a star explosion. Hydrogen is the fuel of the star. Due to nuclear fusion, this hydrogen becomes helium and the size and brightness of the star increase. At one point the star narrowed to itself due to its gravity and its swollen outer layer spread swelled into outer space through loud explosions. The name of this explosion is Supernova. The amount of energy our sun produces throughout our lives is generated in supernovas in a second.
Let's get to know better-
Under the influence of gravitational force, the birth process of a star begins with the accumulation of clouds of gas and dust in the constellation. The more the cloud accumulates, the more intense the collision between the molecules inside it increases. As a result, heat is created. This heat reaches a point when 4 hydrogen atoms are added to create one helium atom each. We know those fusion reactions continue inside each star. In this reaction, hydrogen becomes helium and is accompanied by a lot of energy. When this hydrogen is exhausted, it abandons the exterior of stars like the sun (a little too big to explain how). As a result, it becomes a very small and hot White Dwarf star. In the binary star system (where the two stars revolve around each other), one star White Dwarf and the other if it starts turning into a star Red Giant at that time, then the star White Dwarf will draw some gas to itself through gravity from the exterior of the Red Giant star. Most of this gas is hydrogen. When this hydrogen gas reaches the surface of the hot White Dwarf, it will burn immediately and a nuclear explosion swells on the surface of the White Dwarf. And that's what we see as novas in our night sky.
Such explosions emit a large amount of energy and at that time the star concerned temporarily sometimes shines brighter than the entire galaxy. And it was through this supernova incident that a star died. Scientists say supernova explosions are taking place somewhere in the universe every second. We can't see everything because of our limitations. With the naked eye, we can only see the supernova explosions that occur near our galaxy. Scientists say a supernova explosion occurs in 50 years in galaxies like our Milky Way.
Can a supernova be a cosmic clock?
Let's say it's a little funny. Try to remember what kind of stars can they be? There's no problem if you can't. I'm telling you a little later. According to the life flow of the stars, the stars are a little more than 1.4 Saurabh. When the fusion process comes from hydrogen to helium, helium to lithium, etc., at the end of the phase, when iron comes up, it no longer gets fuel to start the fusion process. Then the poor man started to shut up. But this guy is a great man, even in the inner center of chupsal, he makes a big explosion at the outside level. You must have understood that it was definitely a supernova or UltraStar explosion. It shines brighter than the brightness of all the stars in a galaxy. (But our galaxy is visible every 300 years, so scientists have to look at other galaxies to see it. And yes, this supernova explosion is visible from the earth with the naked eye). If it is between 1.4 and 3 Saurabh, it will turn into a neutron star. The density of neutron stars is abundant. For example - a teaspoon of this star will weigh a few tons. Due to excessive gravity, its electrons and protons together produce chargeless neutrons. That's why it's called neutron stars. This neutron star has a very strong magnetic field. It radiates high wavelength wireless waves at a certain time. Much like pulses, it radiates from time to time. Therefore, when it comes logically, it is called 'pulsar'. So such pulsars are considered to be a cosmic clocks with great precision. What a place of nature this universe!.
How harmful is a supernova to earth?
If a supernova explodes somewhere very close to the earth, it will have a very bad effect on the earth's animal kingdom. The damage will depend on the amount of energy the supernova radiated. The supernova within about 3000 light-years can cause considerable damage. The gamma-ray that will be scattered in the explosion will trigger chemical reactions upwards of the atmosphere resulting in nitrogen nitric oxide. The ozone layer will be completely exhausted, causing harmful ultraviolet rays to fall directly into the ground.
Scientists believe the Ordovician-Silurian great extinction was caused by the supernova explosion. About 60% of the lives of that time were destroyed by this great extinction. The method of detection of the former supernova blast was discovered in 1996. Iron-60 isotopes are reported to have accumulated at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, there was evidence of an increase in nitrate ions in Antarctica's ice. This was attributed to two supernovas that occurred in 1006 and 1054. The gamma-ray from that supernova may have increased the amount of nitric oxide in the atmosphere that was stuck in the ice as nitrate ions. The closest star to the earth is the IK Pegasi system, which is located just 150 light-years away from Earth. Recent studies have shown that if the Type 2 supernova explosion occurs within 26 light-years of the earth, half of the ozone layer will be eliminated. Type 2 Sparnova explodes from at least eight times heavier stars than the sun. But there is no candidate star in the 500 light-years of the world to be such a supernova.