There is no oxygen or water on Mars, But why are people thinking of living there?
How is it possible to get or make water and oxygen there?
The first image is the Korolev Cave north of Mars.
The white substance is water ice. The diameter of the cavity is about 62 km, the diameter of the ice-covered part is about 60 km and the depth is about 2 km. The amount of water it contains as ice is comparable to that of Great Bear Lake in Canada.
This is not the end. Mars, like Earth, has a lot of ice at its two poles. The Arctic has a large water ice cover. Water ice is also stored under the cover of solid carbon-di-oxide at the South Pole. Even liquid water has been found in the area.
However, there is almost no oxygen on Mars. The atmosphere is very thin, with about 98% carbon dioxide. Oxygen is only 0.13%.
However, there are ways to arrange oxygen. There are two methods.
Collecting carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere and analyzing it will produce carbon-monoxide and oxygen.
NASA has already sent an experiment in the 'Perseverance' spacecraft to test this reaction on Mars. Perseverance is already going to land on Mars. He will carry out many experiments on the chest of the red planet.
If the test to produce oxygen from carbon dioxide is successful (edit: the test was successful), then NASA will send a similar device 100 times larger that can produce 2 kg of oxygen per hour. That oxygen will be stored in a tank for future astronauts or any future rocket that needs to be brought back from Mars to be used as fuel.
Water can also be used instead of carbon dioxide. Electrolysis of that water will produce hydrogen and oxygen. It is also possible to get oxygen. This is how the astronauts on the International Space Station are supplied with oxygen
Methane (CH4) and water will be formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with the hydrogen that is available. This methane is the best rocket fuel. In other words, the fuel to return from Mars can be made. The reaction is already underway to supply water to the astronauts on the International Space Station
The spaceship that Elon Musk is building to build human habitation on Mars is powered by methane and oxygen. He wants to send a device to Mars in the near future.
It turns out that the most essential elements for settling on Mars - oxygen, water and fuel - are available there. Although not directly available, it is possible to make these ingredients there using some scientific ingenuity.